Germany was formally united in 1871 under the initiative of Bismarck with King Wilhelm of Prussia as emperor. The previous 'Holy Roman Empire', basically a continuation of the empire of Charlemagne/Karl der Grosse was dissolved in 1806.
Some territory was lost after World War 1 and a lot more after World War 2, basically started by Hitler's Nazi dictatorship. Then the Soviets kept their zone - the 'DDR', East Germany, separate with a wall through the middle of Berlin, until 1990 when the country was reunited.
Germany has been known for artists, from the Renaissance, Dürer, Cranach and many others, musicians, Beethoven, Bach and many of the best known composers were German, also for Hamburgers and Bratwurst, good coffee and cake. German is the main language- also widely spoken in Eastern Europe- but being one of the top countries for immigrants and refugees, there are many sub cultures. Germany has consistently been voted the world's most popular country over the last decades. German cities only appear as inner cities on maps so are understated compared to eg. USA or Australia.
Main cities are Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Frankfurt, Stuttgart. Despite war damage there are many beautiful cities and towns. Its social democracy ensures a moderate income gap, with the world's best social mobility. It's in middle Europe, has around 85 million people, and a strong economy.
In the 21st century, Germany is a great power and has the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a developed country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled and productive society. It upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection and a tuition-free university education.
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