Greatest Civilizations of All Time

The Top Ten
1 Roman Empire (27 BC-1453 AD)

If Rome did not fall, we would be thousands of years more advanced. We probably would have had the industrial revolution around 500 AD.

Rome is truly one of the greatest examples of a great civilization. Their technological advancements and adeptness in conquering made them one of the most superior empires Europe (probably the world) has ever seen. It is truly a shame that Rome fell, one of the greatest tragedies in all of humanity. If Rome just didn't adopt Christianity and were somehow able to conquer the barbarians, we could have skipped the medieval and renaissance eras. We wouldn't have had the Black Plague in Europe, because Rome was already so advanced in medicine, that who knows how cleanly they would be in future years.

Though it is difficult not to compare Rome so easily to Greece, what with Greece's own artistic and scientific advancement as well as the great Macedonian empire, they were not nearly as influential or contiguous as the amazing and marveling ...more

I'm Italian and from Roma, so maybe that's why I'm quite biased with my vote.

Rome is truly the Greatest Civilization! Oh yeah Roman-haters will say "But Rome copied Greek art & culture, they don't have their own arts blah blah blah", well I acknowledge the influences of Greek culture & art on Roman culture & art, but do not insult Rome because of this. Actually Rome has its own unique art, especially in architecture, sculpture & painting(wall-painting). Roman architecture is varied, and it is a unique mix of Etruscan and other Italic architectures and Greek architecture, Romans invented Domes, arches and vaults and many more architectural styles that became a trend in the ancient world/antiquity and even in the Renaissance and today! Renaissance architecture continued the Roman legacy in architecture, because Italy still admires her predecessor.
In sculpture, Rome is the best, though it was influenced greatly by greek art it is still unique. Roman sculpture were very ...more

You put United States in the top 10 and not the Spanish Empire? Spain overcame the Islamic invasion uniting all the kingdoms and conquered the world, from America to the Filipines and south-east Asia... I'm not sure if you are American or not, but this statements clearly represent the egocentrism of anglo-saxon cutures. Must I remaind you names such as Charles I of Spain and V of Germany... I'm not really sure what United States has done in its short history to deserve the title of the 6 greatest civilizations of all time.

The Romans were united unlike the Greeks who were busy fighting each other in Civil wars. The Romans were masters at making alliances and knew how to spread the wealth.
It all started with Octavian Augustas Caesar who created the Praetorian Guards who protected the emperor and if future Emperors jeopardized the Empire they would get eliminated just like Caligula. Unfortunately Mehmet the second came along in 1453 with his cannons putting and end to the great Roman Empire.

2 Ancient Egypt (3150 BC - 30 BC)

Ancient Egypt should be number one. Many Greek philosophers studied in Egypt and were highly influenced by ancient Egypt. Recent studies has shown that the Egyptians were the ones who invented Ports. Something very important and still used today. They also had high heels around the 35th century because. Egyptians were the first to invent philosophy, mathematics, clothing, furniture, arts, clocks and the modern calendar, the alphabet and writing, writing instruments, cosmetics, paper, science, levers, ships, fortresses surgery, and so many other achievements. They are even the first centralised civilisation in the world. During their time Greece and Rome were barbarians living in dark ages. Rome didn't even exist as Rome then! There's a reason why Egyptian doctors were hired all over the world. They could treat CANCER and had knowledge of plastic surgery as well as prosthetics. The pyramids were the tallest structures on earth before the 1300 ADs. Recent archaeology has shown Egyptians ...more

Egypt was the first country to be unified and ruled by the law. Not only did their inventions help them to live, but some of them are still used to this day. Some of the oldest inventions return to 40000 years ago, when the first cups, forks, knives and spoons appeared, while some were just invented before the fall of the Roman Empire. Some of the inventions are known to be Egyptian such as papyrus paper, but there are some others which you'll be surprised to know that they are even that old.
One of the oldest and most important inventions was the twisted rope. It was invented about 19000 years ago. The twisted rope helped the ancient Egyptians make tools for farming and fighting in battles. The discovery of farming around the Nile Valley enabled the ancient people to settle in the area which is now Egypt. The ancient Egyptians also used the calendar, invented in the year 4236 B.C., to organize farming according to the Nile water level, this helped them to minimize crop losses when ...more

Ancient Egypt is far more than the Pyramids and King Tut. I vote for it as the greatest Ancient Civilization because of its social and ethical norms.
1. The Egyptians had a tradition of philosophic wisdom literature that advised people to be just and honest, to think well before talking and acting, to share with the poor, to respect the weak and to refrain from rushness and violence. Very advanced principles, don't you think?
2. The society was hierarchic, but it allowed a good deal of mobility: a smart peasant boy could get educated at temple school and rise to the highest offices, a girl from a modest background could become a high-ranking priestess or successful business woman.
3. While in Rome or Greece most women were dependent on a husband or father, the ancient Egyptian women were their own legal entities. They could inherit and own property, run a business and speak at court. (They could not hold public offices, save for religious ones or as queens, that I concede. So ...more

The ancient Egyptian civilization power didn't depend on its military power as most of all other ancient civilizations. A great advances in engineering, medicine, and astronomy were achieved by the ancient Egyptians. The enormous Giza pyramids standing in its place since 5000 years prove the superior ability of ancient Egyptians in engineering and astronomy. In addition, the ancient Egyptians showed an non-comparative mercy with their enemies compared with other civilizations in the ancient era.

3 Greek Empire (800 BC-600 AD)

Russia is known as the third Rome but who was the second? The answer is of coarse the Byzantine empire (Greek part of the Roman empire). Although Byzantine was known as the second Rome it had nothing to do with how great and powerful the empire was. Just stop to think that if that was the case then Rome should have been known as the second Greece. In fact Byzantine was known as the second Rome because the emperors of Byzantine were the successors of the Roman emperors. Then the Chars of Russia were the successors of the Byzantine emperors.

Rome copied Greece a lot! But if they hadn't copied Greece then lots of Greek culture would have been lost.

The toughest warriors were Greek, the smartest philosophers, mathematicians, scientists, astronomers, inventors and play writes were Greek. Although we may not be the oldest or have concurred the most amount of land (we still concurred a tone) we made the most contributions to the world by far. The Latin alphabet comes from the ...more

Greece contributed to Human development by the most tremendous amount...
Maths that we still being taught in school, mythology, literature ( drama, tragedy, comedy). Let's not forget the theaters, which led to the creation of todays cinema. Epic poetry and virtues of those days back then that still reflect in todays World.
The language that people still use today, but few know that they speak Greek.
The political science that led democracy come out in the spotlight.
The beginning of "Greek" philosophy the main source of todays Human mind evolution.
Olympic Games and the "ef' agonizeste"
Greece stands as the cradle of Western Civilization and the greatest in history.

Ancient Creece was influenced from other civilizations, mainly of Middle East and Egypt but succeeded to move everything much much ahead, succeeded to advance almost everything much much more. Today, the priciples on philosophy and sciences, remains Greek. The bases of sciences are Greek.
And (ancient) Greece accomplished this, instead of its small size. What was the population of ancient greek people? Very low comparable to the populations of Middle East or Egypt. So Greece is the greatest civilization by the point of the influence even in modern world and because all this knowledge produced by a small population.
The only other so great civilization is chinese but the population was much much bigger.

Ancient Greece was the greatest civilization in history without a doubt. The proof is in the putting. Not only is it the basis for Western culture, it also formed the foundation for the Free World. Systems like a democracy and a republic all came from Hellenic freedom. It was also the first known civilization that embraced naturalism. The great pre-socratic philosophers debunked ancient myths and tried to explain everything without the need for superstition. It lead into the first real scientific golden era. You can't even begin to think about mathematics without thinking about the Greeks. Socrates gave us a method of critical thinking, which is indispensable. Plato changed politics forever, and Aristotle revolutionized education. There are almost endless examples of great ancient Greek thinkers, visionaries and heroes that changed the world. Not in the least Alexander the Great. I can go on and on about how enlightened and important ancient Greece was. But let me put it this way, a ...more

4 British Empire (1583 AD-present)

They should be like top 3 because of capitalism sciences from great luminaries like Sir Isaac Newton. Also the British started the industrial Revolution which led to economies all around the world today. Not to mention, they have brought the english language to the whole world as a revolutionary language. Although the language people commonly study around the world is American english, that was just a root that derived from the English. The British also have a great culture, which consists of literature with men like shakespeare, to art, to music with the Beatles, the greatest artists of all time, and punk rock bands like the sex pistols, no to mention queen, the rolling stones, genesis, and so on so forth. Without britain no us. Since much of the americans are cultured from the british and are of british, irish, or german descent living in a british colony.

Largest empire in human history. The single most powerful nation in human history. The only country to overtake China in population. Ruled 1/4 of the worlds surface area for 200 years. The most influencial society in terms of language, innovation, technology, military, and morals. Everything that humanity charishes today was created by britain. England has contributed more to the world than any other sovereign state in human history. Knowledge of gravity, and modern physics, maths, science, literature, music, art, and independence. The british empire was not only able to rise up above all of the other continental superpowers in Europe, but were able to dominate other superpowers around the world such as India and China. It was because of this dominance and success that the small island of great britain became great, and they have continued to be great ever since. Now the empire still lives on in the commonwealth of nations, a peaceful collection of 53 countries that have gained ...more

As said before, the British started the Industrial Revolution. The created a worldwide empire that touched ever corner of the world. Where the British did not out occupy they dominated by commercial and diplomatic relations. In they heyday few countries could ignore the British. Their military expertise was equal to any any empire before them. What they could not conquer they bought. In addition they founded a number of colonies that went on to become substantial countries in their own right. USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand.

In almost every standard it has broken the record for largest empire, except from largest continuous land empire ( record held by mongols), No other empire has influenced the world so dominantly since the roman empire. The British Empire was the last true Empire and finally sacrificed it' self during the WW1 and WW2, its legacy remains in it's golden age of exploration, science, philosophy, trade and language. She dominated the waves, and her armies showed courage not seen since Thermopylae or Pharsalus. Hey ways were as exemplary as Lycurgus' Sparta, Caesar's Rome or Shaka's Zulu's. Her wealth un-matched, her strength triumphant her intellect, unfathomable and her place in history set in stone as the Greatest Empire. Built by the Cannons of the Victory, the dominance of Nelson, the words Of Dickens, the ingenuity of Brunell and the Will of Churchill, she is above any list, and she is chiseled in the history of the world as the greatest empire.

5 Chinese Empire (221 BC-1912 AD)

Five thousands years civilization, far more than 5000 yrs history; most advanced technology most of time in history, leading the world, contributing to all of humans; largest economy most of time in history; greatest army most of time in history; the only remaining ancient human civilization currently; largest population most of time in history; governing the world for goodness of most of the human beings in this world; very beautiful language, character, words system; Chinese are one of the most beautiful, happiest, good-figured race in this world ever forever...

It has a distinct culture from the west. I admit I am a Chinese. Many China-haters are influenced by PRC government and take a biased stand. In fact China is great. Westerners have medical knowledge from Egypt, philosophy and logical thinking from Greece, architect from Rome, fire powder revolution from Ottoman, age of sail by Spain, Bible from Jewish, industrial Revolution of Britain, Renaissance of Italy, enlighten movement from France. The nowadays West attributes to these 8 cultures or even more. But China in thousands of years developed on its own. No another culture can enlighten us because we are isolated from other civilizations. But we still manage to make a great contribution to the world.

It is true that Rome, Egypt, Greece, and all the other empires mentioned contributed greatly to our world as a whole, but when it comes down to it China was one of the greatest civilizations of all time. If it were not for China, many of the inventions that made these other civilizations so great would never have been invented. For example, with out China our world would not have gunpowder, paper (way better than simple papyrus), printing, compasses, silk cultivation, and literally thousands inventions that changed our world dramatically. In addition, China is one of the oldest civilizations known, and it outlasted many of the civilizations listed above. When these characteristics are combined you get an empire that is hard to beat. Just pointing out the facts

China has existed for a lonnng time and sexisted until recently. Unlike the Roman, Greek and Egyptian Empires. Up to the time around the European Industrial Revolution, China was the leading power of the world -most advanced and most prosperous. We must not neglect 4000 years of greatness when judging China. As the title above this says, Chinese Empire (221BC-1912AD), this does not include the communist and nationalist movements in China during recent times. China brought us more inventions than we can list off the top of our head and stayed strong and stable for thousands of years in a somewhat perpetual golden age.

6 The United States (1776 AD-Present)

Its not like I'm saying America is perfect or sits on the pedestal of highest success in all categories. It has and had its faults. The thing is we don't lead in any category other than defense spending, percent of incarcerated citizens and people who believe in christ. Other countries have followed our model and have the liberties and rights we proclaimed in our founding. We are not the freest nation on earth anymore. We like to regulate everything. So people can reasonably say we aren't the best. BUT. We are the States. Their is pride in being the 900 pound gorilla because we do have a FORCE of a military. Since our inception til the 70's we did nothing but advance in all fields. We are a very young nation, but we represent the democratic republic world. Other nations on here have failed and america isn't failing yet. We just aren't the undisputed best in the world right now. I vote america for the future could be bright with the right footing and the past is great.

Saying America has no culture is incredibly ignorant. Our movies have helped shaped the world for almost a century. Our T.V. shows draw eyes. Our music? Good lord the music has inspired so many. Our melting pot may be a mess at times, but it has produced men walking on the moon, inspired numerous other democracies (Without the American Revolution there wouldn't have been a French one frex) and often kept more ruthless powers in check (And no, not saying America is all sweet and light but it has certainly done some good too). We're not the greatest civilization of all time, but we certainly made our mark and deserve to be in the top ten.

The United States is defining modern western culture, and influencing the world. T.V.-shows, the movie industry, the english language, video games, computers, smartphones, etc. Almost everything that defines pop culture was originally American. Also ideals like freedom, democracy and liberalism, were spread thanks in part to the United States. The ones who say America has no culture are clearly not very bright. And I'm saying that as someone from Denmark, a country with thousands of years of history. I can tell that pop culture in Denmark is influenced A LOT by American culture. We go to starbucks, have a cheeseburger at mcdonalds, post pictures on instagram, and watch game of thrones. Just like you. Also, the US economy is literally a quarter of the world. That's insane. And in the 50s it was half. The US is the modern era's Roman Empire. And it doesn't just influence some of the world, but all of it.

I believe a good indicator of how important america is as a civilization is to consider what the world would be like without it. First off it's a major possibility either Germany or Russia would rule most of the world with an iron fist after either side won work war 2. It was only because of Americas strength these nations were kept at bay. Secondly America may be smaller than past empires but that's by choice. America could easily conquer most of the world entirely on it's own apart from possibly Russia or China. Thirdly america has ushered in the digital age through smartphones, the internet, and entertainment the rest of the world still can't compete with. The invention and distribution of these things have influenced the world as deeply or more than the invention of anything else since the discovery of fire. Lastly, america isn't perfect or a world leader in almost any measurable scale but it is still the country where dreams come true. Anyone can become anything they want and ...more

7 Islamic Golden Age (750 AD - 1257 AD)

One of the greatest and most underrated civilizations of all time. They made great contributions in science, math, astronomy and much more. Without people like Ibn al Haytham or Abu Nasr Al-Farabi and many more, the world would not be half as advanced as it is today. A lot of people try to undermine them because they started off translating and learning from older civilizations, making false accusations of "plagiarism", but that's how everybody learns from past knowledge, even Sir Isaac Newton said "If I have seen further than others, it's by standing on the shoulders of giants." And they made their own contributions as well which is what the jealous haters like to leave out. Anyway, haters gonna hate. I'm proud of what my ancestors have done.

Actually, it starts from 610 A.D. It transformed the Arabic fighting nomads into decent men. The small comparatively unorganized army defeated the two super powers of that time, fighting both of them at the same time with their extensive and highly trained and experienced armies. Brought morals from a Divinely inspired book, Quran. Infused thirst of knowledge, it is the start of modernity, to study the Chinese, Indian, and Greek teachings and techniques and to produce refined knowledge in the fields of chemistry, astronomy, physics, medicine, mathematics, commerce, economics, arts, agriculture and later providing the base for European renaissance through the schools of Cordoba, Toledo, Granada, Damascus and Baghdad.

The best civilization in history
The Europeans learn from them and they out from dark ages because of the Islam And its Sciences...
Why the Europeans underrated the civilization of Islam because it's best civilization in history...and it's make the world better because of justice and sciences from Islam... Who discovered The law of gravity? No it's not Newton...the Muslims discovered the law of gravity before hundreds years before Newton...
Who proved the earth was round?
Of course the Muslims discovered this before Hundreds years before Europeans...
Mathematics... Chemistry.. Physics...Calculus...this all made and discovered by Muslims...are you know the chemistry is Arabic word..
They are just hate the Islam...and that why the war just now on the Muslims...
Who is the greatest person in history?
The prophet Muhammad he is just was man in desert but because of the Islam in 50 years make the Islam rule the world and make the justice in the world..
Read about ...more

Saddened by how this knowledge about the great Islamic Golden Age is suppressed by the western education system and mainstream media netwroks for pure cheap political reasons.. This civilization was truly the one that first linked the Eastern civilizations with the western civilizations due its central position in the world. Its main language, the great Arabic language is still felt (through Arabic-rooted words) in many languages around the world including English, Spanish, Turkish, Persian... etc

8 Mongol Empire (1206 AD - 1368 AD)

The Mongols might have been barbaric-like people, but their power during their rule and their influence even today is astounding. They were essential in the development and improvement of trade, for example reopening the Silk Road. They also encouraged migration and moved people around their empire to help advance it. It was the first real experiment of interconnection and a 'global village' which allowed modern globalisation to take place. They also helped to spread ideas, culture and inventions, such as Chinese gunpowder to Europe. In fact, they are so influential that their effects can even be seen now. 1 in 200 people are descended from Genghis Khan. You don't see that anywhere else.

The Mongolian Empire is one of the best empires in the history of the world. as said earlier hey reached their peak in 25 years, Rome took 200, and the Mongolian empire was much larger. They have the best cavalry in the history of the world, and a group of 10,000 scouts took out a crusade, which is basically all of Europe's military forces in one place. The first crusade had 600,000 people in it, so basically it was a 60 to one fight and the crusaders still lost, Mongolia is the best and deserves to be recognized for it

The mongols had pure skill on horseback and archery, not to mention the ability to adapt in siege, adding mobile towers and other siege weapons to their arsenal. They established and maintained a great trading system and the silk road. They almost conquered half of the world. It took Rome 200 years to reach their peak, which Mongolia did in 25. They deserve the #1 spot in my opinion.

During a siege they asked to go into an enemy's fortress to measure their well, the pole they used to "measure" the well was poisoned, true military tactics.

9 Persian Empire (550 BC - 651 AD)

The Persians were the first super power in the world AND invented human rights.

Sure, the empire doesn't look that big, but at that time it had ruled over the known parts of the world, which technically means they were the first people to ever rule the world.

The Persian empire achieved massive technological advancements under some of the most harsh circumstances. They influenced an epic portion of land around them, from Kazakhstan to Egypt, and the first Persian dynasty itself ran from Greece to northern India. Now they've been reduced to an average country just as the Greeks, Romans, Indians, Ottomans, British, Kongo, Mongolians, Chinese, Indonesians, and soon US have become. Don't let media fool you, do the real research, visit the country and maybe learn a few things rather than watching a ridiculous severely inaccurate film.

one of four that threatened Rome, and was its true arch-nemesis. From Thracia to the Indian regions, it prospered under Cyrus the Great and his many revolutionay and progressive ideas.

Please study about king cyrus, I'm shocked that america has a name on this list, 200 years isn't history, the persians had half the world with a great difference: there was no bloodshed in advance on the empire (specially by cyrus the first ruler that found and established human rights). There was a time that we shared the world with the romans.

10 Mayan Empire (2000 BC-1540 AD)

All the other civilizations named had the benefit of building off of other civilizations. Geography, proximity, and conquest or trade gave them the benefit of using the best ideas of others. They were all aided by other cultures-- particularly the Romans, British, Americans, Greeks and Chinese. The Meso-Americans, however were relatively isolated. All of their great achievements are theirs alone. They didn't have the benefit of a vast number of cultures clustered in a relatively small area to draw from. THAT is absolutely admirable.

The Mayan empire was great because their astronomy math, and it was also great because they made the things they did without any other empires around them to get ideas from, unlike the Eastern civs who got more ideas from empires all around them. Plus, they invented the wheel in the Americas. Archeologist discovered toys with wheels on them at a Mayan excavation site. The Maya just didn't need the wheel because they can do things just as easily unlike others civs who couldn't survive without it to the Mayans they were mere toys.

Before the pirates (Spaniards) screwed them, called them uncivilized, destroyed their archives and buildings, before they stole their resources, forced them to speak Spanish, enslaved them, etc. At their time, the Mayans had the most advanced technology on earth, Astronomy was important to them, they knew the earth was oval in shape (not flat), they knew about the solar system and had very advanced mathematics. They had independent states that had a leader (received no wage) who was more like a judge.Their economics were very advances, most people were wealthy and had social status. Medicine was very advanced as well, they had great knowledge about chemistry. Mayan scientists did not pay taxes which encouraged education. Criminals were slaves that had to pay what they've done that way. They did not treat Spaniards as gods (like the Aztecs), they knew who they were and why they were there. Since they were not savages, they tried to avoid war at all times. Their 2012 forecast was about ...more

Agreed on them being isolated, can you think what this world would be like if we didn't have sower. Dirty mud water, nasty baths like the Egyptians stinky like the French. Really the other side of the world would still be filty if it wasn't for them learning from the Mayans.

The Contenders
11 Chola Dynasty (350 BC-1279 AD)

The Cholas represented an outward looking power rather than insular inward looking like regimes before it's advent. It spread it's writ and influence deep into South East Asia and built magnificent temples. Well deserving of being among the greatest civilizations the world has seen.

One of the greatest Tamil-Hindu empires from India. Their contributions made Tamil one of the greatest, oldest languages and gave birth to Malayalam, Kannada and influenced the creation of Telugu languages. The cholas made Tamil Nadu and South India, the land of a million temples

I think there is a 1000 year old temple in Tamil Nadu. I can't believe that it is still completely intact, yet they don't even have to maintain it too much whereas many Greek Structures have already been practically destroyed.

The CHOLAs were the greatest Hindu-Tamilian pan-India kings for several hundreds of years. One Raja Raja Chozhan's empire extended all the way from the southern-most tip of India Kanya Kumari to the Himalayas in the North. It is under the Cholas that Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh became prime South Indian civilizations. Tamil language, under the Cholas gave birth to Malayalam, Manipravalam, Kannada, Tulu and influenced Telugu languages. Tamil Nadu grew to exist even today as the "Land of a Million Temples". The Cholas were wealthy kings. The greatest and richest temples on earth namely Tirupati and Thiruvananthapuram were built by the Cholas. The iconic Brihadeeshwara temple in Tanjore, an architectural marvel, was built by the Cholas. They built trade and commerce with empires around the world. Many Tamilians settled in countries around the world notably in South East Asia. The spread of Hinduism in South East Asia also was spearheaded by the Chola kings.

12 Mughal Empire (1526 AD - 1857 AD)

No, sultan empire was better than Mughal. At least they knew how to rule. Business of that time was best. Mughal didn't rule good. They were reckless about their kingdoms. Yes, they build Taj Mahal. But I also heard that Shah Jahan cut off workers hands. However that's not only the matter. At their time art was too much praised that average economy was downgraded. Cost war between Hindu and Muslims. And overall it cost them their kingdom.

By the way, they couldn't rule till the end of 18 century. At that time they were already dead. They just had the chair. They were probably the people who were lying down on bed and making self portraits.

The mugal empire was an empire of culture... Heritage.. Art... And many more royal things. Infact Akbar the mugal emperor united the 2 distinct religions and conquered almost all parts of India... Alas it was a great dynasty as it evolved in less than a few decade to good quality weapons... Architecture like TAJ MAHAL... And prospered in every possible way...

Yeah yeah, cause some sell their own country, some build Taj Mahal for his beloved wife. And has other wives. While people die for food. Some plan to kill their own king.

The Mughal Empire were very wealthy, in the early 1800's the had 40% of the worlds GDP, between them and China, they had 80%. At the time Britain and Europe did not compare.

13 Ottoman Empire (1299 AD - 1923 AD)

They were THE Muslim empire, from former Carthage to former Persia, they united people of all languages and ethnicities. But under only one emperor, no, one Sultan, and most importantly one supreme God.

The one and only empire to show that Islam can be unified with Western values. Furtermore, an empire which had control over the Middle East and Eastern Europe, despite being in constant proxy war with the greatest nations, empires etc. such as the British Empire, The Italian Empire, France, The Russian Empire. I would call the Ottoman Empire the only dynasty which could bring a lasting order and peace in Europe and Middle East. What a shame the Ottoman Empire ended in such manner when it had a great potential and was good at diplomatic relations.

"Pax Ottomana" gives us clues about how powerfully peaceful the Ottomans were. In 1453 the new age began with "The Conquest of Istanbul". They proved that the world can be ruled equally in peace, regardless of race, religion, and beliefs. Downfall came with French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Geographical Discoveries and incompetent technological developments. Nowadays, Ottoman System sounds like a utopia...

Commanded mighty military might along with great advances in military tactics/technology. First civilization to arm all solders with firearms.

14 Aztec Empire (1428 AD - 1521 AD)

This is without a doubt the most powerful, organized, sophisticated, and religious civilization to exist from the Americas. You have to consider they were able to overcome many obstacles that other civilizations did not face, all in only 60 years.

They started in an inhospitable swamp, and with a highly efficient Chinampa system built a huge city that exceeded in it's population that of any other in the Americas, or even the western world.

Not to mention all sorts of elaborate and monstrous stone architecture without metal tools, machinery, and animals. A highly advanced administrative system, they could keep up to 150 city states centered from their capital which hosted incredible commerce and trade across the empire unparalleled across the ancient world. An interesting fact, they were masters of life sciences, hosting advanced agriculture, medicine, ecology recycling, zoology, and were equally prominent with an extremely accurate, elaborate calendar system based on ...more

When the Aztecs arrived on Tenochtitlan island it was unsustainable as a settlement. They built a series of dams that we still do not understand, which allowed them to control the level of the lakes water. This allowed them to build a great irrigation system. With which they reclaimed the no longer flooded marshland and built farms. They invented a water filtration system that provided perfectly safe nourishment. They lowered the water level and dammed previously underwater land. They designed a complex system of canals across the Island, floating agricultural colonies, a fertilization system and finished it up with magnificent public architecture. After the Spanish destroyed this system IT TOOK UNTIL THE 1920s BEFORE SCIENTISTS SOLVED THE CITIES FLOODING PROBLEM. And only by draining the entire lake.

When you consider the adversities resolved in so little amount of time, this civilization vastly surpasses all others. I wonder what else had they accomplished, given, let's say, an extra century without the spaniards arriving in Mexico.

They were a powerful civilization and they were kind to Cortez but he tricked them and enslaved them.

15 Phoenicia (1200 BC - 539 BC)

Most underrated and advanced civilization. They invented the modern alphabet that we are using now in Byblos Lebanon. First and best traders ever. First to arrive to the American continent. Best maritime ever. Purple of Tyre became more expensive than gold. The continent of Europe got his name from Phoenician Queen Europa.

The first people that travelled.
Creations:
- The alphabet
- Glass
- Purple colour
- Boats
- The legend of the phoenix
- Trade
- They were the ones that built, Sicily, Santorini, Carthage, and many others
- They were the richest because of their unique wood
- The first mathematician was Phoenician (Pythagoras)

They invented a practical alphabet which was the mother to the vast majority of modern alphabets around the world. The Phoenicians also invented the boat and were the first to navigate around Africa.

We would not have our alphabet if it weren't for the Phoenicians. They were also a massive maritime trading empire that heavily influenced the Greeks.

16 Kingdom of Scotland (843 - 1707 AD)

From Lauren Perry:
Even vegetarian haggis is delicious.
Highland cows (or coos, if you will). look them up.
Sexy Accents
Tartans.
Bagpipes
Ever been to Edinburgh?
Loch Ness
Isle of Skye
All of the Highlands, as a matter of fact
Men in Kilts (bam)
The tomb of Robert the Bruce
Scotch Whisky.

17 Byzantine Empire (330 AD-1453 AD)

Constantinople was the most beautiful city in the world until it fell to the barbarians of the east, the savage people that stole its history. I will never forget May 29 1453. The city will be Greek again. It's ridiculous to put the USA well above the Byzantine Empire which was a Greek Empire. It's also highly inaccurate. The Americans are so stupid to think that they have the best civilizations in the world.

Pathetic. The other comments about it falling to 'barbarians' and that 'Americans are so stupid' is complete bull. The Byzantine Empire was indeed a strong nation, but the Ottomans were simply better and finished them off. And Constantinople will be Greek again? Complete bull. Turkey is far superior than Greece is today in economy, military, and doesn't have an insane debt.

East Roman Empire survived for 1000 years. They left an immense heritage behind. Their architecture and science developments were cutting edge of those times. Today Anatolia and especially Istanbul is full of their magical memorial. "Pax Romana" represents their development and peace...

An empire save the Greek values as well as created the bases for Western civilization

18 Ethiopian Empire (1137 AD-1974 AD)

The greatest civilization and culture and not because I am african

Gretest civilization in a africa!
we are the only independent & free country in africa!
so I am proud to be Habesha!

19 Assyrian Empire (1920 BC-1311 AD)

Assyrians may have been despotic and violent, but they had beautiful culture. As already stated here, they had a most prestigious library and university. They also had beautiful art. And when the Babylonians and Persians came along, they made deals and remained semi autonomous.

The Empire that built the first Library and University, also thought of the Pythagoras Theorem truly the empire of Knowledge.

Haha beautiful, they were awesome NOT because they were majestic and calm but majestic in killing people. 100+ respect

Assyrian civilization as Olmsted quoted was and is the light,which guides next generations of Empire's advances in to the future...

20 Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1912 AD)

This guys better than scotland they are larger but they died out quickly

21 Celtic Empire (800-450 B.C.)

The Celtics were arguably the mightiest warriors in history. They invented a language still spoken today, a minor religion still used today, and had mythological figures STILL SEEN TODAY. Though not as popular as the Greeks or Romans, they ruled Gaelic Europe, making them one of the strongest and most prosperous civilizations to date!

Not an empire, just a lot of squabbling tribes.

22 Angevin Empire (1154 AD - 1242 AD)
23 Pandyan Empire (50 AD-1350 AD)

One of the greatest Tamil empires... the classical Tamil, the oldest and still continuously spoken language in the world developed under the Pandyan patrons. Long Live Divine Classical Tamil!

Tamil is very hard

24 Armenian Empire (321 BC - 428 AD)

I like latvia

25 Mauryan Empire (322 BC-185 BC)

It was responsible for the spread of Buddhism in Asia, elevating it to a world religion. Also, it was the first empire to unify the Indian Subcontinent (except the Tamils).

Mauryan kings were very brave.
And the credit of uniting and spreading India to a large geographical area goes to Mauryan Empire.

Ashoka was a great ruler... One of the best... That India had ever seen...

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