Top 10 Enclaves and Exclaves

An enclave is an entire country or part of a country completely surrounded by the territory of another country. The only way to access the territory of an enclave is by crossing the territory of the surrounding country because the enclave has no land connection to the rest of the main country territory.

An exclave is "a piece of land which is politically attached to a larger piece but not physically coterminous (having the same borders) with it because of surrounding foreign territory." - wiki

Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves. But there are enclaves that are not exclaves and exclaves that are not enclaves. Examples:
Three sovereign countries are enclaves but not exclaves: Lesotho, San Marino and Vatican City.
Exclaves which are not enclaves: Nakhichivan Autonomous Republic, and some smaller entities.
The Top Ten
1 Lesotho Lesotho, officially the Kingdom of Lesotho, is an enclaved, landlocked country in southern Africa completely surrounded by South Africa. It is by far the largest of the world's three independent states completely surrounded by the territory of another country, with Vatican City and San Marino being... read more

The Kingdom of Lesotho is world's largest enclave that is entirely surrounded by South Africa. Lesotho gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1966 (South Africa was already independent).

2 San Marino San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. San Marino covers a land area of just over 61 km2 (24 sq mi),... read more

It's as beautiful as Italy. The nation has such a clean look. The nation may seem small but when you cross it you can see that it isn't that tiny. It took me 1:30 hours to cross the nation. So glad I went there.

The republic of San Marino is an enclave within Italy.

3 Vatican City Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. It is the smallest nation on Earth, and is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church.

An enclave within the city of Rome, Italy, established in 1929.

4 Baarle-Hertog

Baarle-Hertog is a Flemish municipality of Belgium, much of which consists of a number of small Belgian exclaves in the Netherlands.
Read this and try to imagine how these bits of land look like - you can cross 4 international borders in just 4 minutes:
"Baarle-Hertog is noted for its complicated borders with Baarle-Nassau, Netherlands. In total it consists of 24 separate parcels of land. The main division of Baarle-Hertog is Zondereigen (named after its main hamlet), located north of the Belgian town of Merksplas. In addition there are twenty Belgian exclaves in the Netherlands and three other sections on the Dutch-Belgian border. There are also seven Dutch exclaves within the Belgian exclaves (I.e., counter-exclaves). Six of these Dutch enclaves are located within the largest Belgian enclave, and a seventh in the second-largest Belgian enclave. An eighth Dutch exclave is located nearby Ginhoven." - wiki
"Some houses in the town of Baarle-Hertog/Baarle-Nassau are divided between the two countries. At one time, according to Dutch laws restaurants had to close earlier. For some restaurants on the border this simply meant that the customers had to move to a table on the Belgian side." - wiki

5 Naxcivan / Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

Naxcivan aka Nakhchivan is a pretty big chunk of Azerbaijan in Armenia. To access this exclave from Azerbaijan you have to cross either Armenia or Iran (both routes are too close to the dangerous region of Nagorno-Karabakh).

6 Campione d’Italia

It's a very beautiful Italian municipality entirely surrounded by Switzerland (that's a "true" enclave and exclave of Italy).
How did this happen? In 1798, the canton of Ticino chose to become part of the Swiss Confederation, but this municipality chose to remain part of Lombardy, Italy. This decision was confirmed by a referendum in 1814. Later Campione d'Italia tried to join Switzerland but the Swiss refused, not wanting to be drawn into Italian disputes.
So how Italian is Campione d'Italia today? It has a Swiss dialing code, Swiss emergency responders, and uses the Swiss currency - Swiss Franc.

7 Former West Berlin

West Berlin was a West German territory located in the middle of East Germany

8 Sokh

Sokh aka So'x is a large enclave of Uzbekistan in Kyrgyzstan. But it's with 99% Tajik population and only 1% Kyrgyz, and almost no ethnic Uzbeks.

9 Hatta

Hatta is the inland exclave of the emirate of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates.

10 Angle Inlet / Northwest Angle

A mapping error during the 1783 Treaty of Paris left a chunk of US territory in present day Canada, then British territory. The map they used misrepresented the lake's location and the border drawn between the US and what was then British territory, created this oddity.

The Contenders
11 Ceuta

Ceuta is a Spanish autonomous city in Morocco, Northern Africa!
Spain erected 6-meter high fences topped with barbed wire to keep out illegal immigrants from Morocco. At night these barbed wire fences are lit up and create a beautiful spectacle.

12 Kentucky Bend
13 Büsingen am Hochrhein

It's a German town entirely surrounded by Switzerland. Population - about 1,450 inhabitants

14 Former Bangladesh Indian Border
15 Likoma Island and Chizumulu
16 Cabinda
17 Melilla
18 Kaliningrad
19 Point Roberts
20 Sankovo-Medvezhye
21 Međurečje
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