Top Ten Scientific Theories Which Seem Unrealistic But Are Scientifically Proved and Accepted

Some of these theories have been the basis of most of the science fiction movies.
The Top Ten
1 The Theory of Relativity

Nothing can be more revolutionary, more controversial, than this theory laid down by none other than Albert Einstein.

This theory is what gave sci-fi fans a hope that time machine could possibly be invented by science, although it is very unlikely.

In brief, the theory says that time dilation for a person can be achieved with two possible ways.

If you travel close to speed of light, then to uphold the Electromagnetic laws of physics, one can never cross the speed of light irrespective of the efforts he puts into.
If however, the person is able to generate enough horsepower to cross this limit. The time will itself dilate for him thus cancelling the effect. (Speed=Distance√∑Time, and here time dilates for given distance to maintain speed below light's speed)

The other way you can achieve time dilation is to be under the influence of a hugely strong gravitational field.

Go into the black hole and you'll realise that time will dilate for you and persons far away would see you falling into the black hole in ultra slow motion (provided that you survive it! ).

Thus through time dilation, one can only move into the future and not the past. At least time paradoxes won't occur with this theory.

2 Quantum Physics

That's actually really true. A number of these are mind blowing and may be perceived as impossible but actually happen. That's what makes it mind blowing.
I adore this list, Kiteretsunu. Thank you!

The whole of quantum physics is very mysterious in itself. Some of the experiments, like Schrödinger's Cat experiment, can baffle anybody's mind in no time.

3 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

This theory brought a revolution in theoretical physics when it first came out. It says that nothing can have a fixed position as well as a fixed momentum at the same time. There is always a theoretical error associated with it.

According to this theory, the probability of existence of any thing stretches out to the whole of universe. You might be sitting in your room, located in our planet earth. But there are countless copies of you, who might be sitting in a similar earth like planet, million light years away! Sounds unrealistic, but this is what we get from this principle.

This principle explained the atomic model to some extent and is the basis of quantum physics. It said that the electron didn't have a fixed orbit but could be located at any corner of space.

This theory also says that the farther one goes away from the seemingly fixed position of an object, the less the probability you would find that object in that place (and the probability is very very low for even a few micrometres from the seemingly fixed position of the object. )

4 Quantum Entanglement

Who would have thought this was possible? Two or more quantum particles with a definitive link between quantum states irrespective of location and irrespective of the quantum states themselves. Meaning that even with great separation, one collapse of a wave function with one decides the fate of the other instantaneously. It is truly amazing how this leads to quantum teleportation, in which entangled particles retain information of each other to transfer to another entangled point, in quantum computing, where entangled qubits increase the quantum calculation number via superpositions exponentially, and even wormholes, which are two black holes entangled by gravity.

5 The Wormhole Theory

Although this theory has not yet recieved full approval from the scientific community, it's a staple one used by sci-fic authors. Through a wormhole, one can travel through time and space into the past or future. Its like a tunnel connecting two timelines.

6 Mass Energy Equivalence Principle

Who doesn't know this famous equation E=m(c)^2 laid down, again, by Albert Einstein. This equation is blamed to be the culprit behind the atomic bombs, which is our prime threat that can cause apocalypse.

Now what does this theory tell us?

Actually, whenever nuclear reactions occur, the total mass of by-products formed are always less than the total mass of the initial object used for the reaction.

The mass lost can be approximately 0.0000000001 gramme, but it destroyed the whole of Nagasaki or Hiroshima in few minutes!

Thus the energy released is so enormous in this principle, that countries have all gone wild to have a control on this power.

7 Wave - Particle Duality

Newton did a great deal of experiments in the field of optics. Through his experiments, he concluded that light was made up of particles (like matter), and thus applied his three mechanics equations to successfully explain reflection and refraction of light. But problems arised when the particle theory was unable to explain the phenomena of interference and diffraction of light.

This is how the wave theory of light was born. The wave theory was consistent not only with reflection and refraction, but also with diffraction and interference of light. But when things were looking too good, a phenomena, called photoelectric effect, created a huge hole in this wave theory.

To solve this problem, Albert Einstein (again! ), came up with a solution and said, " Why not consider light as packets of wave. In that way we could treat it as a particle for this photoelectric thing, and as a wave for explaining the other phenomena like reflection."

So, what is light now considered actually? Both wave and particle at the same time!

Surely very unrealistic, but true.

8 The Absolute Zero Temperature

Although temperature doesn't have a maximum limit, it does have a minimum limit. This is called 0 kelvin temperature or -273.15 degrees celsius. You cannot attain a temperature below this, even if you use 1000000000 refrigerators at the same time to cool it.

The theory states that only ideal gases can attain this absolute zero temperature (not solids, liquids or non ideal gases). Also, at this temperature, the volume of these ideal gases, becomes ZERO! (theoretically). Now how can a gas have zero volume? That is why attaining this temperature is considered as impossible by scientists for real life purposes. You can only bring the temperature very very close to absolute zero ( thus bring the volume of the gas very very close to zero), but not absolute zero.

9 Antimatter

As we all know, the things all around us, WE and this whole material world, are composed of matter. Matter are the things we can touch, feel, see and perceive.

Atoms and molecules make up this whole "MATTER" universe around us. But matter's opposite personality twin, antimatter, existed along with his brother when the universe was newly formed. They never got along, and as soon as they would collide, they would explode into a burst of energy and would get annihilated.

How matter won this war is still unknown. There are many theories explaining this, but we don't know for sure why matter won.
Antiparticles of protons are called anti- protons
And that of neutrons are called antineutrons
Antiparticles of electrons are called Positrons!

10 The Singularity

Singularities have always been difficult to digest. They have a finite mass but zero volume, and thus have infinite density. Example: Black Holes.

The Big Bang Theory (not the T.V. show) tells us that our universe started from a singularity, which exploded, and thereafter kept on expanding (and still is).

The Contenders
11 The Big Bang Theory
12 Matter As a Wave Theory

When experiments showed that cathode rays (beam of electrons) could also be diffracted, it posed a massive problem for the scientific community. To explain this, they had to accept that electrons too showed wave particle duality like light. And thus all the matter, including us, are considered to be as both the wave and the particle in the eyes of science.

13 Bose-einstein Condensates

I researched this in eighth grade it basically is a supersolid at just above absolute zero by a few billionths of a degree. It can be made artificially by somehow using a laser beam controlled at a price of andesite I think its been a while so I may be wrong n the last part.

14 Dark Matter Theory
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